Recent studies have demonstrated the harmful effects of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system, causing myocardial injury, inflammation, microthrombi, and ventricular dysfunction, and myocardial infarction. Up to one-half of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suffer from cardiac complications, yet little information has been published that aids clinicians in stratifying patients at greatest risk for cardiac complications. The primary objective of this observational retrospective cohort study was to analyze risk factors associated with cardiovascular events (CEs). Secondary objective was to determine whether risk factors and outcomes were influenced by race. This study involved 700 inpatients hospitalized in nine different hospitals from March 9, 2020 to June 20, 2020. All inpatients hospitalized with COVID-19 were included and those COVID-19 patients who were not hospitalized or under the age of 18 years were excluded. Predictor variables included age, sex, race, comorbidities, and current clinical and laboratory data. Outcome variables were experiencing CEs, death, and length of stay (LOS). Multiple logistics regression was used to examine which variables predicted CEs. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Of 700 COVID-19 positive inpatients,126 experienced CEs and 574 did not (18% incidence rate). Factors found to be highly associated with the odds of new onset of CEs: advanced age, males, AA, presence of comorbidities, and decreased saturation levels and inpatients that had CEs had a much higher mortality rate than those without CEs (45.2% vs. 8.7%). Highest prevalence of complications among patients with COVID-19 were cardiac arrhythmias, new onset of HF diagnoses, and acute myocardial infarctions.
Ph.D, RN, CIC, FAPIC,
University of Louisville